Pranayama is popularly understood as a variety of breathing exercises. However there is more to it. Apart from filling the lungs with fresh oxygen, the purpose of Pranayama is to use the effective air circulation in the physical body to influence the flow of Prana or energy in the Pranamaya Kosha or the energy Sheathe enwrapping our body.
Before a child is born, it gets its entire oxygen supply from the mother. After birth, the doctor, nurse, parents, all wait anxiously for the baby to start breathing. If there is slight delay, there is a panic. The nurse holds the baby upside down, the doctor slaps the baby’s back. Then when a shrill cry is heard, all tension melts away – the baby is breathing! From that moment onwards the breathing process remains involuntary. However, what we fail to understand is the difference between a voluntary beneficial way of breathing and the automatic breathing for survival. In general, humans breathe badly. Shallow, brisk, involuntary breaths. Thus we develop improper breathing habits, using only a small part of the lung capacity. This causes shallow breathing and deprives the body of sufficient oxygen and energy or prana, essential for good health and leads on to lack of resistance to disease, making us easy prey to extreme stress and chronic ailments.
An essential prerequisite for a calm and contented state of mind is a consciously controlled rhythmic deep and slow respiration. Untrained, irregular breathing disrupts the rhythm of the brain and causes physical, emotional and mental blocks. Through a deliberately controlled breathing practice or Pranayama, an immense amount of energy, trapped in the dark neurotic thought patterns, can be released for use in creative, rewarding and joyful activities.
In simple words, Pranayama consists of breathing in, breathing out, inward breath holding and outward breath holding. Literally speaking ‘Pran’ means energy or life force that exists in all things and the definition of ‘Ayama’ is, extension or expansion. Hence true Pranayama is the unique technique or proven, age old tools, to activate, circulate and strengthen the energy system, which then permeates into other dimension like vibration and resonation. The undeniable consequences of serious Pranayama techniques are rapidly getting acceptance of modern science and medical faculties.
Yoga-meditation breathing is based on natural breathing, consisting of the rhythmic inward and outward flow of the breath through nose. Consciously observe this flow of cool air reaching throat, chest and lungs. Bring full awareness of the expansion and subsiding of ribcage, rising and falling of the diaphragm. Abdominal breathing is the most natural and efficient way to breathe. However, often under extreme stress, poor posture, and to a certain extent, lack of guidance from guardians, this procedure is flouted. Irregular breathing throws into disarray the regular rhythms of the brain, causing physical, emotional and mental blocks. In the long run afflicted individuals show signs of inner conflict and personality disorder, leading to chaotic lifestyle and diseases. When correct form of breathing is restored, healing and repairs begin and one starts to experience an improved state of physical and mental well-being. Thoracic breathing uses the expansion of the rib cage, to make more room for extra air in the middle lobes of the lungs. Yoga meditation uses all these methods to optimize inhalation and exhalation.
There are various Pranayama techniques. Each technique concentrates on a specific area of human body and enriches the entire body mind and soul.
It is believed that there is an intimate connection between the breathing process and the flow of energy or prana along the nadis (energy channels) and chakras or energy grids. Prana, the life energy manifests in physical platform as movement and action and on mental platform as conscious, subconscious and unconscious thought process. Through committed Pranayama practice, the performer attempts to fathom the cosmic nature and partake the supreme wisdom to conquer afflictions and petty limitations. The basic requirements for success with yoga-meditation are sincere determination, an ethical and well structured livelihood in which unselfish thoughts and controlled breathing play an important role.
Breath awareness is the starting point of Pranayama practices. We must understand how we are breathing and the breathing pattern generally. Try to understand whether your breath is fast and shallow. Which part of the body is moving most. Notice if your breathing is quiet or little bit noisy. Try to feel the air temperature. In normal circumstances, the inhaled air feels cooler than the exhaled air. Feel the difference. With full concentration, your breath should become smoother and deeper. At this stage be aware of your breath only, how air is entering through the nostrils, then travelling down, along the wind pipe, into your lungs. When exhaling, be conscious of the toxins and carbon dioxide escaping from your body. There is no set length of time for Pranayama practices, do them as long as you enjoy without getting bored.
Breath is the most vital process of our everyday life. It influences the cells of the body, the brain, muscles and the glands. From simple yet wise observation of animals, such as elephants and tortoises, who have long lifespan, the ancient yogis realised the importance of deep, slow and steady breathing in prolonging longevity. Recent scientific studies have established that breathing through different nostrils have different effects in human body. Right nostril breathing stimulates sympathetic nervous system (fight or escape response) positioned at the left hemisphere of the brain. Left nostril breathing on the other hand, stimulates parasympathetic nervous system, whose typical response is relaxation and concerns right hemisphere of the brain.
In yoga language, there are three primary energy or air channels, Ida, Pingala and Susumna. Ida channel is affiliated to the moon, which is cooling, restorative and feminine in nature and is connected to the left nostril. The right nostril, on the other hand services the Pingala channel, and is associated to the sun, being warming, energising and masculine. Nadi Sodhana or Alternative Nostril breathing balances the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System. When Pranayama processes clear the blockages and breathing is comfortably balanced between the two nostrils, Susumna Nadi or the middle channel gets activated, awakening the serpent power, whose upward journey begins with inexpressible sensation, pleasure and satisfaction.
One must not forget that Pranayama practices are not an end in itself. Proper Pranayama and meditation should lead on to liberation of the soul and the achievement of ultimate knowledge and wisdom.
Pranayama Technique :
1. ANULOM – BILOM / ALTERNATE NOSTRIL BREATHING
Slowly inhale through the left nostril. Close left nostril and exhale through the right nostril. Inhale through the right nostril, exhale through the left nostril. Practice the basic alternate nostril breathing at your own pace. As you progress, a time ratio can be introduced, such as, breath in 4 seconds, breathe out 8 seconds. Make sure that breathe out is longer than breathe in. Start by inhaling through the left nostril and end by exhaling through the left nostril.
2. Suryaveda Pranayama
Practice Procedure: Assume a comfortable meditation posture. Place the hands on the knees. Close the eyes and relax the whole body. When the body is comfortable and still watch the breath until it spontaneously becomes slow and deep. Close the left nostril with the ring finger and inhale slowly and deeply through the right nostril, then close both nostrils holding breath for 6 secs. Exhale gently for 8 secs through left nostril closing the right nostril.
2 sets(8 cycles per set). Assuming- 6 secs breathe-in by the right nostril, 6 secs pause by holding both nostrils and 8 secs breathe-out by left nostril. Thus one cycle completed. In this way, you have to do 10 cycles in one set. After each set, 30 secs rest at sitting position by crossed legs(i.e. Sitting sukhasana) with closed eyes. (380 secs)
Contra-indications: People suffering from the art disease, hypertension, epilepsy, peptic ulcer should not practice this pranayama. Never practice suryaveda pranayama after eating a full meal, as it will interfere with the natural flow of energy associated with digestion.
Note: The sanskrit word surya means Sun which refers to pingola nadi while Veda means to pierce or awaken. Thus suryaveda means to pierces or purify pingola nadi.
3. Chandraveda Pranayama
Chandra means moon. In yoga language, left nostril represents Ida breathing channel. Moon is the symbol of coolness in the body. In this exercise, inhalation is done through left nostril and exhalation through the right nostril. These two larger nadis or passages, hold the balance of magnetism and energy created by the sun and the moon.
Practice Procedure:2 sets (5 cycles per set). First we have to inhale by left nostril up to 6 secs, then 4 secs breathe hold, then 8 secs breathe-out by the right nostril, then 2 secs is needed for changing the nostril. Then again we have to inhale by a left nostril and continue. So for 1 cycle, we have to spend [6+4+8+2]20 secs. After each set, 30 secs rest with closed eyes. (260 secs)
4. Kapalvati By Mouth
Practice Procedure: Sit in the bajrasana posture. Those who are unable to sit in this posture may use a chair. Blow the air out of your lungs through the mouth and as you blow the air out, the stomach along with the lungs must be emptied of air. As you had exhaled orally now inhale through your mouth and fill your lungs and stomach with air.
2 sets(50 times at a stretch per set as described in our video). After each set 30 secs rest at bajrasana with closed eyes.(160 secs).
Contra-indication: People suffering from acute emphysema, tachycardia, uncontrolled hypertension, heart palpitation, anginal discomfort, chest pain, pericarditis or coronary diseases, migraine headache due to physical strain should not do this exercise without medical advice.
5. Bajrasana Deep Breathing
Practice Procedure: Sit in bajrasana. Close the eyes, relax the arms and the whole body. Breathe normally and fix the attention on the flow of air passing in and out of the nostrils.
10 cycles. First cycle – 4 secs breathe-in by raised shoulder with backward movement, 1 sec pause with raised shoulder, 8 secs breathe-out with “ha” sound by coming forward and 1 sec pause by touching the ground with finger tips after coming forward. So for one cycle, we have to spend [4+1+8+1]14 secs. In this way we have to do 10 cycles.
Do POSITIVE THINKING* for 1 min at bajrasana. (total 200 secs)
6. Ardha Supta Bajrasana Deep Breathing
Practice Procedure: Be seated on the ground with legs folded double from the knee and together while the soles of the upturned feet should remain under the buttocks, heels jutting outward on either side. Folded knees should remain close together in the front. The torso should remain absolutely straight with spine kept erect. Raise your hands and interlock your fingers and place your both palms behind your head. Then slowly bend forward and your forehead should touch the ground.
2 sets (10 cycles in each set). 4 secs breathe-in by raised shoulder with backward movement, 1-sec pause with raised shoulder, 8 secs breathe-out with “ha” sound by coming forward and 1-sec pause by touching the ground with fingertips after coming forward. So for one cycle, we have to spend [4+1+8+1]14 secs. In this way, we have to do 10 cycles for 1 set. After each set, 30 secs rest at Bajrasana with closed eyes.
7. Ardha Chandrasana Deep Breathing
Practice Procedure:Stand erect with feet together. Raise arms upstretched touching the ears. With outstretched palms facing each other, grip one of the two thumbs by the other palm. Now, bend backward from the waist to make the upper torso approximately parallel to the ground and keep the knees straight.
2 sets (10 cycles per set) – From Starting position, 4 secs breathe-in with raising the body, 1 sec pause at standing position, 8 secs breathe-out with forward bending, 1 sec pause at the starting position. In this way – one cycle has been completed. After 10 cycles i.e. 1 set – 30 secs rest at standing attention position with closed eyes. [340 secs]
Contra-indication:It is forbidden if suffering from dizziness, dysponea,ulcerative colitis, parkinson syndrome,spondylolisthesis, pylonephritis, rheumatic heart diseases, paroxymal tachycardia, multiple sclerosis.
8. Standing Deepbreathing
Practice Procedure:2 sets (10 cycles per set) – From Starting position, 4 secs breathe-in with raising the body, 1 sec pause at standing position, 8 secs breathe-out with forward bending, 1 sec pause at the starting position. In this way – one cycle has been completed. After 10 cycles i.e. 1 set – 30 secs rest at standing attention position with closed eyes. [340 secs]
9. Sahaj Pranayama
Practice Procedure:2 sets (5 times each set). In each set – at first 4 secs breathe in by raising both hand , 1 sec pause by touching the ground behind head, then 8 secs breathe out with putting the hand down and 1 sec pause by touching the ground with both hands then 4 secs breathe in by raising one leg, 1 sec breathe hold at raising leg position and 8 secs breathe out with putting the leg down and 1 sec pause before starting another leg. In this way – another leg have to do. So by 1 set, we have to spend [4+1+8+1*3] 42 secs. In this way, we have to do the total procedure at a stretch 5 times In this way another leg has to be performed. After each set, 1 min rest at lying on your back. (540 secs)
10. SINGHASANA OR LION POSE PRANAYAMA.
This procedure primarily strengthens throat muscles. Do not feel awkward mimicking lion face. This pose will release inhibition and help to get excess tension off the chest. Inhale deeply through the nose and to exhale through the mouth, open your mouth wide, stick the tongue fully out, open both eyes wide letting the breath out with a loud HA sound, keeping your eyes fixed towards the third eye. Repeat 4 to 5 times, and then take rest in Savasana pose. Pranayama, correctly done, will restore mind-body balance.
11. Bhastrika Pranayama
Practice Procedure: Sit in a comfortable meditation posture with the stretched hands. Keep the head and spine straight, close the eyes and relax the whole body. Take a deep breath in and breathe out forcefully through the nose. During inhalation fold your hand and close your fist and throw your hands up with forceful exhalation. Repeat this procedure for the required numbers. Immediately afterward breathe in with the same force. Forceful inhalation results from fully expanding the abdominal muscles and forceful exhalation from firm contraction of the abdominal muscles. Do not strain. During inhalation, the diaphragm descends and the abdomen moves outward. During exhalation, the diaphragm moves upward and the abdomen moves inward. There should be a snuffing sound in the nose, but no sound should come from the throat or chest.
2 sets(30 cycles per set). Breathe-in with bending the hands and breathe-out with stretching the hands. Try to breathe-in by 1 sec and breathe-out by 1 sec. Every cycle of breathe-in and breathe-out need 2 secs approx as depicted in the video. After each set 30 secs rest at bajrasana with closed eyes (180 secs).
12. Sitali Pranayama
Practice Procedure:2 sets(10 cycles per set). 8 secs breathe-in by folded tongue, 4 secs breathe-hold by swallowing it, 10 secs breathe-out by both nostrils and 2 secs hold before breathe-in. Thus 1 cycle completed by 24 secs. After 10 cycle 1 min rest at sitting sukhasana with closed eyes.(600 secs)